Moving Beyond the Binary for Transgender Library Patrons by Kaela Delgado

From the public transition of Caitlyn Jenner, to the Trump administration’s ongoing identity politics, the American transgender community has recently received more exposure and scrutiny than ever before.  For better or worse, US media continues to put a spotlight on one of the most disenfranchised groups in our country.  Although significant progress has been made for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) community, there is still much work to be done to uphold and advocate for their basic human rights.

As modern librarians, our profession is defined by a set of core values that, as stated by the American Library Association, seek to “reflect the history and ongoing development of the profession” (ALA core values, 2004).  These values include, but are not limited to, access, diversity, confidentiality, and social good.  When considering the needs of the transgender community and the guiding principles of our profession, there is an obvious opportunity for libraries to do what they do best: provide space and equitable access for the underserved.

While many libraries claim to support the LGBTQ community, their services may inadvertently overlook or discriminate against a portion of this population.  This is, in large part, because our society widely misunderstands what it means to be transgender (Steinmetz, 2011).  If we as librarians seek to uphold our professional principles and support LGBTQ equity, we need to begin with our own accountability.  By taking the time to understand the complexities of this patron population, we will be better equipped to advocate for access, services, and safety in solidarity.

First and foremost, it is critical for librarians to make a conscious effort to move beyond perceived binaries.  Providing equitable service to the LGBTQ community requires an understanding that this is not a one-size-fits-all acronym.  Transgender patrons are a unique subgroup of this population and they present a diverse set of needs.  The LGBTQ community utilizes two primary terms to denote gender: cisgender and transgender.  The term cisgender represents those who live their lives identifying as the same gender they were assigned at birth.  People who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, or straight may also identify as cisgender.  This is because sexual orientation and gender identity are not one in the same.

Alternatively, transgender is an umbrella term for anyone who does not exclusively identify with their birth gender.  This subgroup includes transgender women, transgender men, people who are gender-fluid, gender non-conforming, asexual, and other identities that stretch beyond the confines of the traditional male and female binary (LGBTQ+ definitions, 2017).  It may be difficult for people to recognize gender as a spectrum rather than a binary, but libraries can advocate for this reality through education and demonstrated awareness (Steinmetz, 2011).  (Please visit for a more comprehensive list of LGBTQ definitions.)

Librarians must be aware that misconceptions and a general lack of understanding contribute negatively to the experience of transgender people in our communities at large.  One of the most common misconceptions, is that the term transgender implies a surgical or medical transition.  While some transgender people do seek gender reassignment surgery, many choose to express their identity in other ways.  Regardless, the emotional stress of being born into a body that does not align with their personal gender identity can be highly detrimental (Frequently asked questions, 2017).  The fact that this population is continuously abused, marginalized, and discriminated against, underlines their need for support.  Whether this manifests as a need for safe public space, private access to information, or community advocacy, libraries can and should answer this call.

When considering the ways in which libraries can meet the needs of transgender patrons, it is important to understand their constraints.  Collectively, the transgender population has maintained a very clandestine existence throughout history (Beiriger & Jackson, 2007).  Oppression largely impedes their search for resources, as most collaborative efforts require outing their identity and subjecting themselves to judgement, ridicule, and harm.  While the internet has provided great solace for this population, there is no doubt that these patrons would also benefit from access to information literacy through the library.  Not to mention, all members of our communities should have the choice to seek out information in safe public spaces.  For this reason, the confidential nature of libraries and the privacy polices they adhere to, have the potential to offer invaluable protection to transgender people.

As providers of equitable service and access to all, librarians need to regularly evaluate their efforts to serve disenfranchised populations.  When assessing your service to the LGBTQ population, I implore and encourage you to take note of whether your library serves all, none, or only some members of this group.  Intentions are good, but action is better.  For that reason, another post will address initiatives you can take to make the library an inclusive space for transgender patrons and employees.


ALA core values of librarianship. (2004). Retrieved from

Beiriger, A., & Jackson, R. M. (2007). An assessment of the information needs of transgender communities in portland, oregon. Public Library Quarterly, 26(1-2), 45-60. doi:10.1300/J118v26n01_03

Frequently asked questions about transgender people. Retrieved from

LGBTQ+ definitions. (2017). Retrieved from

Steinmetz, K. (2011). Being transgender is still widely misunderstood. Retrieved from


We Don’t Care What’s Going on “Down There:” Libraries as Safe Spaces for All Patrons, Including Those Who Use the Restrooms by Alexa Hight

Some of the blog posts have already alluded to or addressed it head on, but under the current government administration politics have turned for the worse and people’s personal safety are constantly threatened. While for most minorities (whether minorities of sex, color, gender, and/or sexual orientation) threat to safety is not a new concept under Trump’s regime, it has gotten worse rather than better. And in some areas, issues were growing worse even before Trump was elected.

In March 2016, North Carolina passed a bill that required people to use the bathroom that aligned with the sex recorded on their birth certificate, license etc. The argument was that it protected bathroom users (women) from assaulters pretending to be trans women. Obviously, this was heavily discriminatory to transgender as well as gender neutral individuals. (Bathrooms that force gender neutral individuals to pick a bathroom is discriminatory in and of itself.) While transgender persons born in North Carolina can obtain modified birth certificates on which their sex is different than what was originally identified at the time of their birth, they may do so only if they have undergone sex reassignment surgery (Schoiet, 2016). In response to the passing of the bill, Janet Mock – a transgender rights activist – took to twitter and responded, “Upon entering a restroom, trans women are stared at, yelled at, dragged, kicked, shamed, deemed unworthy, asked to prove their womanhood…Let’s drop the ‘we are protecting (some) girls & women.’ We should be protecting all women, especially trans girls & women. Not villainizing them, pathologizing them & further marginalizing them” (Mock, 2016). Mock’s tweets are supported by studies and statistics on sexual assaults in restrooms, which show no incidence of assaults where the perpetrator was a transgender person using a restroom aligning with their gender identity, while 70% of transgender people report facing harassment or assault while trying to use a restroom in DC (Herman, 2013). Although North Carolina’s bathroom bill was repealed earlier this year, other states have introduced or passed similar bills, and safety issues for trans and gender neutral individuals are still prevalent throughout the US (Park & McLaughlin, 2017).

What does this have to do with libraries? Well, according to the American Libraries Association’s Code of Ethics, as professional, librarians aim to provide equitable access to every individual (ALA, 2017). This has often been interpreted in such a way to say that libraries are for every individual and as such it is a safe space and all are welcome; although other blog posts have pointed out that this is not in fact the case historically. However, in the past few years, libraries both public and academic have made efforts to be more inclusive and welcoming for their transgender patrons. Some libraries have reinforced the idea that patrons are welcome to use whichever bathroom suits their identified gender. However, librarians such as Katherine Weadley, who is the director of Lyons Regional Library District in Colorado, not every patron fits the traditional gender norms (Cottrell, 2015). In other words, saying that everyone is welcome to use either the men’s or women’s bathroom does not work for those who identify as neither or other. Some libraries, such as Portland Community College in Oregon have undergone construction to create single stall gender-neutral bathrooms (Cottrell, 2015). Doing so removes the issue of patrons who feel uncomfortable sharing a bathroom with patrons of another gender, a resulting issue of welcoming everyone to use either restroom. Single stall gender-neutral bathrooms also ensure the safety of every user. Construction of all new single stall gender-neutral bathrooms may be out of the question for every library, however, due to the cost and time necessary in order to do so. Some libraries have encouraged users to use handicap single stall restrooms if they feel unsafe or do not identify as either male or female. Issues clearly remain, although libraries are on the path towards inclusion.

The Allen Ginsberg Library is one such library that is unable to afford to create more single stall gender-neutral bathrooms in areas where patrons use the restroom. Fortunately, the university’s Office for Inclusive Community created the #COMMUNITYRESTROOMPROJECT, whose “Queering the Space” campaign “transformed all restrooms into spaces which educate the community on issues facing the trans population and the impact that gendered bathrooms, and the gender binary, have on all of us” (Office for Inclusive Community, 2017). In every bathroom, there are posters informing bathroom goers on studies, statistics, and other bathroom-related information. While the library and university are unable to realize the campus and the bathrooms they wish to see with gender-neutral restrooms for all, they have used the opportunity to educate their patrons, staff, students, and faculty. While not all libraries may be able to make their patrons feel welcome and safe with the physical structures of the library and bathrooms, they may aim to do so with signs, pictures, and statistics that only educate their users, but make transgender and gender-neutral issues more visible; this in and of itself is supportive of the library’s users.

American Library Association. (2017, September 26). Professional Ethics. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from

Cottrell, M. (2015). Libraries move toward gender-neutral bathrooms. American Libraries, 46(11/12), 16-17.

Herman, J. L. (2013, June). Gendered restrooms and minority stress: The public regulation of gender and its impact on transgender people’s lives. Journal of Public Management and Social Policy. UCLA School of Law Williams Institute. Retrieved October 13, 2017 from and-Minority-Stress-June-2013.pdf

Mock, J. (2016, March 24). Upon entering a restroom, trans women are stared at, yelled at, dragged, kicked, shamed, deemed unworthy, asked to prove their womanhood. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from

Office for Inclusive Community. (2017). Community update. Naropa University. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from experience/inclusive/community-update.php

Park, M., & McLaughlin, E. C. (2017, March 30). North Carolina repeals ‘bathroom bill’. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from carolina-hb2-agreement/index.html

Shoichet, C. E. (2016, April 5). “North Carolina transgender law: Is it discriminatory?” CNN. Retrieved October 13, 2017 from gender-bathrooms-law-opposing-views/


Reading the Way to Equity: Look at the Social Responsibility of Educators by Madison Hosack

“How is there freedom to choose if one does not learn how to choose?”

David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

When considering agents of influence in society, education rises to the top. We are all reared on the knee of an educational system chosen for us, a curriculum created in the scope of what will and will not be asked on standardized test, taught by people with their own opinions and influences. This idea that we are all by and large products of our environments is referred to as the nexus of practice. It is similar to the popular concept floating around that you become the average of the five people you spend the most time with. The nexus of practice “describes how mutual or shared ways of knowing, doing, and being become intricately bound to the ways in which we mediate, (re)negotiate, and engage in imagined and real spaces locally and globally” (Dunkerly‐Bean, Bean, Sunday, & Summers, 2017). Boil that down and it basically explains that the way in which people experience and perceive the world is directly influenced by the external forces surrounding them at all times. Apply nexus of practice to children in an educational setting and think about all the potential influencers: teachers, classroom, materials, curriculum etc. All these environmental influencers hold the potential to encourage and facilitate free thought, or significantly diminish it.

An immeasurable effort is placed into preparing children for the world and workforce and yet preparing them to be socially responsible citizens seems to have fallen to the wayside. There seems to be a discord in defining what educational systems are and are not responsible for. On one side there is math, science, english, or any subject traditionally associated with primary education. On the other side there is subject areas related to social justice, poverty, power structures, the social context into which more traditional subject knowledge lives within. There is a “long history of monocultural stratification embedded in the culture of public education” and the curriculum seems to have “fallen short in preparing participants to meet the demands of democracy and pluralism” (Suleiman, 2014). Educational systems need to address the role they play in shaping identities as well as teaching basic skills, that knowledge does not exist in a vacuum, and that social responsibility is not innate, but taught.

As part of the educational system and an agent of democracy, libraries share a responsibility in engaging citizens in a critical conversation regarding diversity, equity, and power structures. When disseminating ideas of social justice and equity, children’s literature can be a powerful democratic tool. Reading is an avenue of exploration and literature bridges a gap between the theoretical and the personal, meaning that children can explore difficult topics at a comfortable distance (Shelton & Mcdermott, 2010). Public libraries have placed themselves at center of early childhood development and literacy and must address their own power and influence as educational entities. When considering the transformative power of children’s literature, the ability to personalize learning, library professionals should seize the opportunity to address social issues. Social justice, race, class, gender are all topics that warrant as much educational and civic value as more traditional forms of informational literacy. Children’s literature that deals with themes of social justice has the potential to reduce children’s bias regarding differences (Kim, 2013). Library professionals are not neutral agents. As institutions of democracy, libraries should use their power to promote democratic ideals. Literacy goals should not be exclusive to literacy skills, but also incorporate the “value and meaning of the human experience in our pluralistic society” (Kim, 2013). The power of literature as well as the power of the librarian controlling access to literature, needs to be wielded in the name of social justice, meaning a new professional standard for educators that illuminates ignorance as a democratic right.

Thirty-five picture books for young activists:


Bittner, R., Ingrey, J., & Stamper, C. (2016). Queer and trans-themed books for young readers: A critical review. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(6), 948-964. doi:10.1080/01596306.2016.1195106

Dunkerly‐Bean, J., Bean, T. W., Sunday, K., & Summers, R. (2017). Poverty is two coins: Young children explore social justice through reading and art. Reading Teacher, 70(6), 679-688. doi:10.1002/trtr.1566

Kim, S. J. (2013). The democratic vision of teaching literature: Preschool bilingual children’s reading of literature with social justice (Ph.D.). Available from ProQuest Central, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Social Science Premium Collection. (1466668897). Retrieved from

Shelton, N. R., & Mcdermott, M. (2010). Using literature and drama to understand social justice. Teacher Development, 14(1), 123-135. doi:10.1080/13664531003696683

Suleiman, M. (2014). Leading for equity and social justice : From rhetoric to reality Place of publication not identified : Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.

The Capabilities Approach & Social Justice in LAIS: Part 2 by Mckinley Churchwell

Welcome to the sequel. Last time I gave a brief overview of Martha Nussbaum’s take on the Capabilities Approach. The understanding of such a theory can help with informed social justice decision making and the critical evaluation of actions in the LAIS field. Today, I’ll be giving some examples that make the Central Capabilities tangible.

Central Capabilities 1-3: Life, bodily health, and bodily integrity

Libraries can assist with the capabilities of life, bodily health, and bodily integrity with community health initiatives; community health initiatives can include raising awareness about mental health, providing patrons with fitness trackers, or having librarians trained as “community health specialists” as was done in some Philadelphia libraries (Cabello & Butler, 2017). Libraries need to address literacy, this includes health literacy.

Some people complain about those experiencing homelessness “taking over” public libraries. Many libraries already realize that they are essential to the homeless population. For example, San Francisco was the first public library system in North America to hire a full-time social worker who could directly refer patrons of all kinds to proper help and who could address the needs of patrons struggling with homelessness and housing insecurity (Zettervall, 2015). Many libraries have followed suit. There is much talk in the field of public librarianship about the need for further collaboration between librarians and social workers. There is even discussion about the mixing of roles to create a librarian social worker hybrid. The social worker librarian idea is demonstrated by Zettervall’s idea of the “whole person librarian” which I mentioned in part one (2015, p.13); I highly recommend reading Zettervall’s article  “Whole Person Librarianship.” Despite all the progress that has been made in serving homeless or housing insecure populations, there is still so much more we need to do in order to support our communities’ life, bodily health, and bodily integrity capabilities.

Libraries participation in ensuring the capabilities of life, bodily health, and bodily integrity is especially important in rural communities where such resources might be scarce. It is essential to be aware of the needs of your community when planning your programming and displays. You should definitely take advantage of months and weeks like Dyslexia Awareness Month, Cervical Health Awareness Month, Mental Health Awareness Week, Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month, and the plethora of other awareness months. Displays and programs are great, but providing a permanent fixture of current resources through the library website or easily grabbable printables is also a wonderful thing to do.

Central Capabilitie 4-6: Senses, imagination, thought, emotions, and practical reason

Libraries are already pretty great at ensuring these capabilities and at innovating on new ways to ensure these capabilities better. Librarians generally value intellectual freedom, literacy, empathy, critical thinking, autonomy, and the magical realm of the imagination. Libraries care a lot about providing people with opportunities to better themselves. Many libraries mission and vision statements are some variation of: to create “a city where imagination and opportunity thrive“ and to provide a library that “brings people, information and ideas together to enrich lives and build community” (Seattle Public Library, 2017). According to Jaeger, Shilton, & Koepfler (2016), libraries, particularly public libraries, have expanded social roles and responsibilities (with great power comes great responsibility) and they are going to keep expanding. Mission and vision statements keep it vague because there’s a lot more we are going to end up doing. With the capabilities of emotion and practical reason, librarians often act as facilitators by providing materials and the reference services like reader’s advisory (which, particularly in regards to emotions, can sometimes cross the line into the controversial subject of librarians conducting bibliotherapy).

Now, here is how we can improve on these capabilities. The number one way to improve on these capabilities is by making sure that we are providing the public with diverse collections and programming. This means making sure that all book displays are diverse displays. The library needs to be welcoming to all and therefore needs to represent all.

If you don’t already know about the #WeNeedDiverseBooks campaign, then I highly recommend poking around their website:

Central Capability 7-10: Affiliation, other species, play, and control over one’s environment

There are two direct ways to ensure the affiliation capability in libraries:

  1. Community building AKA socializing your patrons.
  2. No discrimination whatsoever.

Sounds easy right? Now do that radically; be radically inclusive in your library.

Moving on. We can also help to ensure the control over one’s environment capability through the provision of ample volunteer positions, teen advisory boards, and patron feedback and suggestion forms. Another way to provide control over one’s environment in libraries is through the use of townhall style meetings. Libraries should also provide outlets for children to develop a sense of autonomy.

Despite many libraries lack of animals, many are doing pretty good at ensuring the other species capability. Libraries are ensuring this capability by creating community gardens, providing free National Parks passes, running programs that have children reading to or making blankets for dogs, and teaming up with parks, zoos, or the like to do educational programs on animals and the environment.

Lastly, libraries have become more and more about play. Libraries frequently encourage recreational activities with their wide range of programming and regular group meetings (i.e. quilting club, writers club, book club, anime club, Dungeons & Dragons club, and so on so on). Libraries have become louder, especially children’s and teen’s sections which often boast imagination stations or gaming computers. Learning and play often go hand in hand in public libraries.

In Conclusion

This topic could go on forever and you don’t have to stop here, you have access to google and your library’s databases. So, go, learn, and have a good time exploring how you can get your library rolling on ensuring that patrons’ capabilities!

Always remember: you are super capable of provoking change!

Works Cited

Cabello, M., & Butler, S. M. (2017). How public libraries help build healthy communities. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from

Jaeger, P. T., Shilton, K., & Koepfler, J. (2016). The Rise of Social Justice as a Guiding Principle in Library and Information Science Research. The Library Quarterly, 86(1), 1-9.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating Capabilities (Kindle Locations 219-395). Kindle Edition.

Seattle Public Library. (2017). The Seattle Public Library. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from

Zettervall, S. S. (2015). Whole Person Librarianship. Public Libraries, 54(2), 12-13.

The Capabilities Approach & Social Justice in LAIS, Part 1 by Mckinley Churchwell

When tackling social justice, it is important to have a framework to use for assessment and theorization. As an individual, you have cobbled together a framework for judging the need for justice from societal influences and your own experiences. As a librarian, your framework probably falls in line with ALA’s Code of Ethics; you probably care deeply about intellectual freedom and information literacy.

But, are those frameworks, your personal and professional, mashed together good enough? Do they make you feel comfortable when considering the many issues of social justice? Do those frameworks inspire you to action? Do you feel that you truly comprehend the heart, soul, and mission of the library 100%?

Today, I would like to tell you about Martha Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach. In my next post (the sequel), I’ll be talking about how the core capabilities of Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach can be (and in many cases already, unknowingly, are) addressed in the LAIS field. It is important for librarians to be aware of this approach so that they can better visualize the possibilities of the library and our role in serving the community. This approach fits especially well with the idea of the “whole person librarian,” a librarian who will collaborate with or act similarly to a social worker; the “whole person librarian” will apply social work practices and radically include and engage with their community white utilizing nonjudgmental listening (Zettervall, 2015, p.13). So yes, I do believe this theory could be important in shaping the future of librarianship.

Without further ado…

A Brief Introduction to the Capabilities Approach
The Capabilities Approach sprung from the mind of Amartya Sen in the 1980’s as an economic theory, however, that is not the Capabilities Approach that you will be learning about today (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, n.d.). You will be learning about a theory of social justice that considers elements such as human dignity and entrenched inequality due to discrimination or marginalization (Nussbaum, 2011). The theory you will be learning about is none other than Martha Nussbaum’s (2011) Capabilities Approach which examines quality-of-life and theorizes social justice. This approach is not just concerned with the number of capability achievements that a person can acquire (i.e. professional success, buying a house, and so on), but with the quality of those capability achievements (Nussbaum, 2011).

But wait, you might be wondering, what exactly is a capability?
A capability is pretty much a right, but better. Nussbaum describes capabilities in this fashion, “They are the answers to the question, ‘What is this person able to do and to be?’” (2011, Kindle Location 242). Capabilities are “opportunities to choose and to act” (Nussbaum, 2011, Kindle Location 242). Capabilities reside inside an individual are also created by “personal abilities, and the political, social, and economic environment” (Nussbaum, 2011, Kindle Location 244). You can probably already see how nicely the idea of capabilities fits into librarianship; after all the very existence of libraries and librarians “is based on creating opportunity (read: equity) for all of our patrons” (Sonnenberg, 2017, p. 18).

Nussbaum identified ten Central Capabilities:

  1. Life. Being able to live to the end of a human life of normal length; not dying prematurely, or before one’s life is so reduced as to be not worth living.
  2. Bodily Health. Being able to have good health, including reproductive health; to be adequately nourished; to have adequate shelter.
  3. Bodily integrity. Being able to move freely from place to place; to be secure against violent assault, including sexual assault and domestic violence; having opportunities for sexual satisfaction and for choice in matters of reproduction.
  4. Senses, imagination, and thought. Being able to use the senses, to imagine, think, and reason-and to do these things in a “truly human” way, a way informed and cultivated by an adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic mathematical and scientific training. Being able to use imagination and thought in connection with experiencing and producing works and events of one’s own choice, religious, literary, musical, and so forth. Being able to use one’s mind in ways protected by guarantees of freedom of expression with respect to both political and artistic speech, and freedom of religious exercise. Being able to have pleasurable experiences and to avoid nonbeneficial pain.
  5. Emotions. Being able to have attachments to things and people outside side ourselves; to love those who love and care for us, to grieve at their absence; in general, to love, to grieve, to experience longing, gratitude, and justified anger. Not having one’s emotional development blighted by fear and anxiety.
  6. Practical reason. Being able to form a conception of the good and to engage in critical reflection about the planning of one’s life. (This entails protection for the liberty of conscience and religious observance.)
  7. Affiliation. (A) Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other human beings, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another. (Protecting this capability means protecting institutions that constitute and nourish such forms of affiliation, and also protecting the freedom of assembly and political speech.) (B) Having the social bases of self-respect and nonhumiliation; being able to be treated as a dignified being whose worth is equal to that of others. This entails provisions of nondiscrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, caste, religion, national origin.
  8. Other species. Being able to live with concern for and in relation to animals, plants, and the world of nature.
  9. Play. Being able to laugh, to play, to enjoy recreational activities.
  10. Control over one’s environment. (A) Political. Being able to participate effectively in political choices that govern one’s life; having the right of political participation, protections of free speech and association. (B) Material. Being able to hold property (both land and movable goods), and having property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; having the freedom from unwarranted search and seizure. In work, being able to work as a human being, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers. (2011, Kindle Locations 376-393)

We will be returning to these capabilities in installment 2 of “The Capabilities Approach & Social Justice in LAIS” and making them tangible. However, I bet many of you can already think of examples of ways libraries already enable these capabilities or could do more to allow everyone to be their most capable self.

Works Cited

  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (n.d.). Sen’s Capability Approach. Retrieved September 30, 2017, from
  • Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating Capabilities (Kindle Locations 219-395). Kindle Edition.
    Sonnenberg, J. (2017). School Libraries as Activist Spaces: Moving Social Justice to the Center of Our Practice. CSLA Journal, 41(1), 18-11.
  • Zettervall, S. S. (2015). Whole Person Librarianship. Public Libraries, 54(2), 12-13.