Fake News is out, Post-Truth is in: Can Academic Libraries Keep Up? By Kimberlee Roberts

Lurking behind every research paper assignment is a librarian and a professor waiting to jump at the opportunity to teach information literacy. Sure enough, if you assign a research paper, the fake news articles and sensationalist web clickbait will come. At this point, Instruction Librarians lug around metaphorical toolkits with an unimaginable surplus of acronyms (CRAAP, Big6, Super3) created to help combat the fake news phenomenon and facilitate critical analysis of media news providers. It’s the quick-fix Band-Aid for teaching information literacy on the surface level but, when bots and algorithms can generate sensationalist news intelligently, those acronyms fall SHORT (Should Help Out but Really cause Trouble).

The intersection of media and libraries is well defined in the American Library Association’s core value of social responsibility last adopted in 2004. “The broad social responsibilities of the American Library Association are defined in terms of the contribution that librarianship can make in ameliorating or solving the critical problems of society; support for efforts to help inform and educate the people of the United States on these problems and to encourage them to examine the many views on and the facts regarding each problem” (2004). Essentially, the ALA is calling to arms the literacy information instructors in academic institutions to uphold and teach information social justice. Given that information inundates our lives, information should also be perceived as a tool that can work for or against a democratic society and, because the ALA serves the ideals of a democratic and informed society, Instruction Librarians are bound by their obligation to learn from and teach fake news.

The current complication we are all subtly facing is the quiet slow death of fake news.

When we call something news, we assign a level of validity that the information we are being presented with can convincingly hold some points of truth that, overall, feed a larger mission of misleading the reader. However, as fake news becomes less fake and more sensational, it is no longer fake or false facts that are responsible for the negative persuasion on the reader but rather it is the affect of the information. We consume information from a perspective of how it makes us feel.

That’s why there is a movement to drop fake news and understand it as rebranded propaganda in the post-truth world.

However, academic Librarians have been teaching with their handy acronyms (I’m guilty of this, too) as a remedy for understanding the misinformation crisis on a superficial level. In order to attack the influx of sensationalist information, libraries need to embrace the world as being in post-truth. Mr. Library Dude (Joe Hardenbrook, 2017) said it best, “it takes time to critically evaluate and a checklist approach won’t suffice. You need to think, analyze, question motives, and question your own assumptions too.”

“Now is not the time for information professionals to be neutral about fake news, half truths, alternative facts and those that perpetuate them and allow them to flourish, it is the time to be proactive, noisy and passionate” (Kylie Burgess, 2017). Kylie’s right. Academic libraries need to throw their acronyms aside, push up the sleeves of their cardigans, and fall deeply and maddeningly into an understanding of post-truth ideology.

As librarians across the Nation begin to use their voices with more confidence and assurance about social justice issues, the library as an institution will continually develop its reputation as a social justice beacon for the Nation. In this regard, academic Instruction Librarians must learn to adopt information social justice. Laura Saunders (2017) articulately points out that “for the most part librarians and library professional associations have embraced information social justice as a natural fit for their education and outreach missions, as well as the core value of social responsibility”.

We know we need to do something, but first we need to re-teach ourselves a better avenue of approach.

Post-truth, declared as Dictionary.com’s word of the year in 2016, is the idea that information is judged, not on objective fact, but from the consumer’s biases and beliefs. Emotional responses to information are more powerful a tool for rationalizing than the objective process of weighing the facts. Truth, therefore, that feels no longer relevant is no longer relevant.

An idea proposed at a conference held by the Phillips Academy (2017) suggests to academic Librarians to reduce the power of the conglomerate that is Fake News by reframing the information as propaganda when teaching their students. Propaganda has historically been difficult for information consumers to understand. Take, for example, Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal” as the epitome of propaganda’s power. Mix in some well written satire, snap your fingers, and suddenly Europe thinks people are actually going to eat their progeny. Fake News seems like a new and dangerous thing but, when you re-contextualize it, it’s actually just a historical battle against propaganda and emotions.

With some historical context, the overwhelming task of deconstructing Fake News in a Post-Truth world seems increasing plausible and it’s easy enough to go into that Librarian tool-box, too. And, if I’m being realistic, the deconstruction has got to start in libraries. Barbara Fister (2017) makes the observation that “governments [cannot] pass laws that will fix the problem (though some are trying.) And teaching students the art of fact-checking won’t solve the problem, either. It goes deeper than that.” Though Barbara didn’t describe just how deep fighting misinformation goes, we know that it includes libraries.

The American Library Association established their five Key Action Areas in 1998 as guiding principles for themselves and libraries nationally. Most relevant to my argument is the focus on Intellectual Freedom and Education and Continuous Learning. Libraries are expected to provide all information without biases and objection—to foster Intellectual Freedom and continuous learning—but how can libraries carefully navigate that obligation if the information is falsified; skewed; misleading?

Libraries being examples of thoughtful and analytical information stewardship is one answer, and the only answer that I can justifiably present at this moment. The truth is that libraries can only educated insofar as they can afford to reach, and our resources only allow for so much prosperity. Ben Johnson (2017) justifies our failure with this thought: “And if false information wins the day, we can take comfort in knowing that we kept the option of truth available.”




Burgess, K. (1970, February 06). Librarianship in a post-truth world: An information science student’s perspective. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from https://librarywhisperers.space/home/2017/2/5/librarianship-in-a-post-truth-world-an-information-science-students-perspective

Fister, B. (n.d.). Post-Post Truth | Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/library-babel-fish/post-post-truth-0

Hardenbrook, J. (2017, April 04). Post-Truth and Fake News. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from https://mrlibrarydude.wordpress.com/2017/04/04/post-truth-and-fake-news/

Johnson, B. (2017, March). Information Literacy is Dead: The Role of Libraries in a Post-Truth World. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/mar17/Johnson–Information-Literacy-Is-Dead–The-Role-of-Libraries-in-a-Post-Truth-World.shtml

P. (n.d.). Libraries in a Post-Truth World by Phillips Academy Andover. Retrieved October 23, 2018, from https://livestream.com/phillipsacademy/owhl

Saunders, L. (2017). Connecting information literacy and social justice: Why and how. Communications in Information Literacy, 11(1), 55-75.


Moving Beyond the Binary for Transgender Library Patrons by Kaela Delgado

From the public transition of Caitlyn Jenner, to the Trump administration’s ongoing identity politics, the American transgender community has recently received more exposure and scrutiny than ever before.  For better or worse, US media continues to put a spotlight on one of the most disenfranchised groups in our country.  Although significant progress has been made for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) community, there is still much work to be done to uphold and advocate for their basic human rights.

As modern librarians, our profession is defined by a set of core values that, as stated by the American Library Association, seek to “reflect the history and ongoing development of the profession” (ALA core values, 2004).  These values include, but are not limited to, access, diversity, confidentiality, and social good.  When considering the needs of the transgender community and the guiding principles of our profession, there is an obvious opportunity for libraries to do what they do best: provide space and equitable access for the underserved.

While many libraries claim to support the LGBTQ community, their services may inadvertently overlook or discriminate against a portion of this population.  This is, in large part, because our society widely misunderstands what it means to be transgender (Steinmetz, 2011).  If we as librarians seek to uphold our professional principles and support LGBTQ equity, we need to begin with our own accountability.  By taking the time to understand the complexities of this patron population, we will be better equipped to advocate for access, services, and safety in solidarity.

First and foremost, it is critical for librarians to make a conscious effort to move beyond perceived binaries.  Providing equitable service to the LGBTQ community requires an understanding that this is not a one-size-fits-all acronym.  Transgender patrons are a unique subgroup of this population and they present a diverse set of needs.  The LGBTQ community utilizes two primary terms to denote gender: cisgender and transgender.  The term cisgender represents those who live their lives identifying as the same gender they were assigned at birth.  People who are gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, or straight may also identify as cisgender.  This is because sexual orientation and gender identity are not one in the same.

Alternatively, transgender is an umbrella term for anyone who does not exclusively identify with their birth gender.  This subgroup includes transgender women, transgender men, people who are gender-fluid, gender non-conforming, asexual, and other identities that stretch beyond the confines of the traditional male and female binary (LGBTQ+ definitions, 2017).  It may be difficult for people to recognize gender as a spectrum rather than a binary, but libraries can advocate for this reality through education and demonstrated awareness (Steinmetz, 2011).  (Please visit Transtudent.org for a more comprehensive list of LGBTQ definitions.)

Librarians must be aware that misconceptions and a general lack of understanding contribute negatively to the experience of transgender people in our communities at large.  One of the most common misconceptions, is that the term transgender implies a surgical or medical transition.  While some transgender people do seek gender reassignment surgery, many choose to express their identity in other ways.  Regardless, the emotional stress of being born into a body that does not align with their personal gender identity can be highly detrimental (Frequently asked questions, 2017).  The fact that this population is continuously abused, marginalized, and discriminated against, underlines their need for support.  Whether this manifests as a need for safe public space, private access to information, or community advocacy, libraries can and should answer this call.

When considering the ways in which libraries can meet the needs of transgender patrons, it is important to understand their constraints.  Collectively, the transgender population has maintained a very clandestine existence throughout history (Beiriger & Jackson, 2007).  Oppression largely impedes their search for resources, as most collaborative efforts require outing their identity and subjecting themselves to judgement, ridicule, and harm.  While the internet has provided great solace for this population, there is no doubt that these patrons would also benefit from access to information literacy through the library.  Not to mention, all members of our communities should have the choice to seek out information in safe public spaces.  For this reason, the confidential nature of libraries and the privacy polices they adhere to, have the potential to offer invaluable protection to transgender people.

As providers of equitable service and access to all, librarians need to regularly evaluate their efforts to serve disenfranchised populations.  When assessing your service to the LGBTQ population, I implore and encourage you to take note of whether your library serves all, none, or only some members of this group.  Intentions are good, but action is better.  For that reason, another post will address initiatives you can take to make the library an inclusive space for transgender patrons and employees.


ALA core values of librarianship. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/corevalues

Beiriger, A., & Jackson, R. M. (2007). An assessment of the information needs of transgender communities in portland, oregon. Public Library Quarterly, 26(1-2), 45-60. doi:10.1300/J118v26n01_03

Frequently asked questions about transgender people. Retrieved from https://transequality.org/issues/resources/frequently-asked-questions-about-transgender-people

LGBTQ+ definitions. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.transstudent.org/definitions

Steinmetz, K. (2011). Being transgender is still widely misunderstood. Retrieved from http://healthland.time.com/2011/11/18/being-transgender-is-still-widely-misunderstood/


We Don’t Care What’s Going on “Down There:” Libraries as Safe Spaces for All Patrons, Including Those Who Use the Restrooms by Alexa Hight

Some of the blog posts have already alluded to or addressed it head on, but under the current government administration politics have turned for the worse and people’s personal safety are constantly threatened. While for most minorities (whether minorities of sex, color, gender, and/or sexual orientation) threat to safety is not a new concept under Trump’s regime, it has gotten worse rather than better. And in some areas, issues were growing worse even before Trump was elected.

In March 2016, North Carolina passed a bill that required people to use the bathroom that aligned with the sex recorded on their birth certificate, license etc. The argument was that it protected bathroom users (women) from assaulters pretending to be trans women. Obviously, this was heavily discriminatory to transgender as well as gender neutral individuals. (Bathrooms that force gender neutral individuals to pick a bathroom is discriminatory in and of itself.) While transgender persons born in North Carolina can obtain modified birth certificates on which their sex is different than what was originally identified at the time of their birth, they may do so only if they have undergone sex reassignment surgery (Schoiet, 2016). In response to the passing of the bill, Janet Mock – a transgender rights activist – took to twitter and responded, “Upon entering a restroom, trans women are stared at, yelled at, dragged, kicked, shamed, deemed unworthy, asked to prove their womanhood…Let’s drop the ‘we are protecting (some) girls & women.’ We should be protecting all women, especially trans girls & women. Not villainizing them, pathologizing them & further marginalizing them” (Mock, 2016). Mock’s tweets are supported by studies and statistics on sexual assaults in restrooms, which show no incidence of assaults where the perpetrator was a transgender person using a restroom aligning with their gender identity, while 70% of transgender people report facing harassment or assault while trying to use a restroom in DC (Herman, 2013). Although North Carolina’s bathroom bill was repealed earlier this year, other states have introduced or passed similar bills, and safety issues for trans and gender neutral individuals are still prevalent throughout the US (Park & McLaughlin, 2017).

What does this have to do with libraries? Well, according to the American Libraries Association’s Code of Ethics, as professional, librarians aim to provide equitable access to every individual (ALA, 2017). This has often been interpreted in such a way to say that libraries are for every individual and as such it is a safe space and all are welcome; although other blog posts have pointed out that this is not in fact the case historically. However, in the past few years, libraries both public and academic have made efforts to be more inclusive and welcoming for their transgender patrons. Some libraries have reinforced the idea that patrons are welcome to use whichever bathroom suits their identified gender. However, librarians such as Katherine Weadley, who is the director of Lyons Regional Library District in Colorado, not every patron fits the traditional gender norms (Cottrell, 2015). In other words, saying that everyone is welcome to use either the men’s or women’s bathroom does not work for those who identify as neither or other. Some libraries, such as Portland Community College in Oregon have undergone construction to create single stall gender-neutral bathrooms (Cottrell, 2015). Doing so removes the issue of patrons who feel uncomfortable sharing a bathroom with patrons of another gender, a resulting issue of welcoming everyone to use either restroom. Single stall gender-neutral bathrooms also ensure the safety of every user. Construction of all new single stall gender-neutral bathrooms may be out of the question for every library, however, due to the cost and time necessary in order to do so. Some libraries have encouraged users to use handicap single stall restrooms if they feel unsafe or do not identify as either male or female. Issues clearly remain, although libraries are on the path towards inclusion.

The Allen Ginsberg Library is one such library that is unable to afford to create more single stall gender-neutral bathrooms in areas where patrons use the restroom. Fortunately, the university’s Office for Inclusive Community created the #COMMUNITYRESTROOMPROJECT, whose “Queering the Space” campaign “transformed all restrooms into spaces which educate the community on issues facing the trans population and the impact that gendered bathrooms, and the gender binary, have on all of us” (Office for Inclusive Community, 2017). In every bathroom, there are posters informing bathroom goers on studies, statistics, and other bathroom-related information. While the library and university are unable to realize the campus and the bathrooms they wish to see with gender-neutral restrooms for all, they have used the opportunity to educate their patrons, staff, students, and faculty. While not all libraries may be able to make their patrons feel welcome and safe with the physical structures of the library and bathrooms, they may aim to do so with signs, pictures, and statistics that only educate their users, but make transgender and gender-neutral issues more visible; this in and of itself is supportive of the library’s users.

American Library Association. (2017, September 26). Professional Ethics. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.ala.org/tools/ethics

Cottrell, M. (2015). Libraries move toward gender-neutral bathrooms. American Libraries, 46(11/12), 16-17.

Herman, J. L. (2013, June). Gendered restrooms and minority stress: The public regulation of gender and its impact on transgender people’s lives. Journal of Public Management and Social Policy. UCLA School of Law Williams Institute. Retrieved October 13, 2017 from https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Herman-Gendered-Restrooms- and-Minority-Stress-June-2013.pdf

Mock, J. (2016, March 24). Upon entering a restroom, trans women are stared at, yelled at, dragged, kicked, shamed, deemed unworthy, asked to prove their womanhood. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from https://twitter.com/janetmock/status/712998495804895233

Office for Inclusive Community. (2017). Community update. Naropa University. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.naropa.edu/the-naropa- experience/inclusive/community-update.php

Park, M., & McLaughlin, E. C. (2017, March 30). North Carolina repeals ‘bathroom bill’. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.cnn.com/2017/03/30/politics/north- carolina-hb2-agreement/index.html

Shoichet, C. E. (2016, April 5). “North Carolina transgender law: Is it discriminatory?” CNN. Retrieved October 13, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2016/04/03/us/north-carolina- gender-bathrooms-law-opposing-views/


Reading the Way to Equity: Look at the Social Responsibility of Educators by Madison Hosack

“How is there freedom to choose if one does not learn how to choose?”

David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

When considering agents of influence in society, education rises to the top. We are all reared on the knee of an educational system chosen for us, a curriculum created in the scope of what will and will not be asked on standardized test, taught by people with their own opinions and influences. This idea that we are all by and large products of our environments is referred to as the nexus of practice. It is similar to the popular concept floating around that you become the average of the five people you spend the most time with. The nexus of practice “describes how mutual or shared ways of knowing, doing, and being become intricately bound to the ways in which we mediate, (re)negotiate, and engage in imagined and real spaces locally and globally” (Dunkerly‐Bean, Bean, Sunday, & Summers, 2017). Boil that down and it basically explains that the way in which people experience and perceive the world is directly influenced by the external forces surrounding them at all times. Apply nexus of practice to children in an educational setting and think about all the potential influencers: teachers, classroom, materials, curriculum etc. All these environmental influencers hold the potential to encourage and facilitate free thought, or significantly diminish it.

An immeasurable effort is placed into preparing children for the world and workforce and yet preparing them to be socially responsible citizens seems to have fallen to the wayside. There seems to be a discord in defining what educational systems are and are not responsible for. On one side there is math, science, english, or any subject traditionally associated with primary education. On the other side there is subject areas related to social justice, poverty, power structures, the social context into which more traditional subject knowledge lives within. There is a “long history of monocultural stratification embedded in the culture of public education” and the curriculum seems to have “fallen short in preparing participants to meet the demands of democracy and pluralism” (Suleiman, 2014). Educational systems need to address the role they play in shaping identities as well as teaching basic skills, that knowledge does not exist in a vacuum, and that social responsibility is not innate, but taught.

As part of the educational system and an agent of democracy, libraries share a responsibility in engaging citizens in a critical conversation regarding diversity, equity, and power structures. When disseminating ideas of social justice and equity, children’s literature can be a powerful democratic tool. Reading is an avenue of exploration and literature bridges a gap between the theoretical and the personal, meaning that children can explore difficult topics at a comfortable distance (Shelton & Mcdermott, 2010). Public libraries have placed themselves at center of early childhood development and literacy and must address their own power and influence as educational entities. When considering the transformative power of children’s literature, the ability to personalize learning, library professionals should seize the opportunity to address social issues. Social justice, race, class, gender are all topics that warrant as much educational and civic value as more traditional forms of informational literacy. Children’s literature that deals with themes of social justice has the potential to reduce children’s bias regarding differences (Kim, 2013). Library professionals are not neutral agents. As institutions of democracy, libraries should use their power to promote democratic ideals. Literacy goals should not be exclusive to literacy skills, but also incorporate the “value and meaning of the human experience in our pluralistic society” (Kim, 2013). The power of literature as well as the power of the librarian controlling access to literature, needs to be wielded in the name of social justice, meaning a new professional standard for educators that illuminates ignorance as a democratic right.

Thirty-five picture books for young activists:



Bittner, R., Ingrey, J., & Stamper, C. (2016). Queer and trans-themed books for young readers: A critical review. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 37(6), 948-964. doi:10.1080/01596306.2016.1195106

Dunkerly‐Bean, J., Bean, T. W., Sunday, K., & Summers, R. (2017). Poverty is two coins: Young children explore social justice through reading and art. Reading Teacher, 70(6), 679-688. doi:10.1002/trtr.1566

Kim, S. J. (2013). The democratic vision of teaching literature: Preschool bilingual children’s reading of literature with social justice (Ph.D.). Available from ProQuest Central, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, Social Science Premium Collection. (1466668897). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.du.idm.oclc.org/docview/1466668897?accountid=14608

Shelton, N. R., & Mcdermott, M. (2010). Using literature and drama to understand social justice. Teacher Development, 14(1), 123-135. doi:10.1080/13664531003696683

Suleiman, M. (2014). Leading for equity and social justice : From rhetoric to reality Place of publication not identified : Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.

The Capabilities Approach & Social Justice in LAIS: Part 2 by Mckinley Churchwell

Welcome to the sequel. Last time I gave a brief overview of Martha Nussbaum’s take on the Capabilities Approach. The understanding of such a theory can help with informed social justice decision making and the critical evaluation of actions in the LAIS field. Today, I’ll be giving some examples that make the Central Capabilities tangible.

Central Capabilities 1-3: Life, bodily health, and bodily integrity

Libraries can assist with the capabilities of life, bodily health, and bodily integrity with community health initiatives; community health initiatives can include raising awareness about mental health, providing patrons with fitness trackers, or having librarians trained as “community health specialists” as was done in some Philadelphia libraries (Cabello & Butler, 2017). Libraries need to address literacy, this includes health literacy.

Some people complain about those experiencing homelessness “taking over” public libraries. Many libraries already realize that they are essential to the homeless population. For example, San Francisco was the first public library system in North America to hire a full-time social worker who could directly refer patrons of all kinds to proper help and who could address the needs of patrons struggling with homelessness and housing insecurity (Zettervall, 2015). Many libraries have followed suit. There is much talk in the field of public librarianship about the need for further collaboration between librarians and social workers. There is even discussion about the mixing of roles to create a librarian social worker hybrid. The social worker librarian idea is demonstrated by Zettervall’s idea of the “whole person librarian” which I mentioned in part one (2015, p.13); I highly recommend reading Zettervall’s article  “Whole Person Librarianship.” Despite all the progress that has been made in serving homeless or housing insecure populations, there is still so much more we need to do in order to support our communities’ life, bodily health, and bodily integrity capabilities.

Libraries participation in ensuring the capabilities of life, bodily health, and bodily integrity is especially important in rural communities where such resources might be scarce. It is essential to be aware of the needs of your community when planning your programming and displays. You should definitely take advantage of months and weeks like Dyslexia Awareness Month, Cervical Health Awareness Month, Mental Health Awareness Week, Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month, and the plethora of other awareness months. Displays and programs are great, but providing a permanent fixture of current resources through the library website or easily grabbable printables is also a wonderful thing to do.

Central Capabilitie 4-6: Senses, imagination, thought, emotions, and practical reason

Libraries are already pretty great at ensuring these capabilities and at innovating on new ways to ensure these capabilities better. Librarians generally value intellectual freedom, literacy, empathy, critical thinking, autonomy, and the magical realm of the imagination. Libraries care a lot about providing people with opportunities to better themselves. Many libraries mission and vision statements are some variation of: to create “a city where imagination and opportunity thrive“ and to provide a library that “brings people, information and ideas together to enrich lives and build community” (Seattle Public Library, 2017). According to Jaeger, Shilton, & Koepfler (2016), libraries, particularly public libraries, have expanded social roles and responsibilities (with great power comes great responsibility) and they are going to keep expanding. Mission and vision statements keep it vague because there’s a lot more we are going to end up doing. With the capabilities of emotion and practical reason, librarians often act as facilitators by providing materials and the reference services like reader’s advisory (which, particularly in regards to emotions, can sometimes cross the line into the controversial subject of librarians conducting bibliotherapy).

Now, here is how we can improve on these capabilities. The number one way to improve on these capabilities is by making sure that we are providing the public with diverse collections and programming. This means making sure that all book displays are diverse displays. The library needs to be welcoming to all and therefore needs to represent all.

If you don’t already know about the #WeNeedDiverseBooks campaign, then I highly recommend poking around their website: http://weneeddiversebooks.org

Central Capability 7-10: Affiliation, other species, play, and control over one’s environment

There are two direct ways to ensure the affiliation capability in libraries:

  1. Community building AKA socializing your patrons.
  2. No discrimination whatsoever.

Sounds easy right? Now do that radically; be radically inclusive in your library.

Moving on. We can also help to ensure the control over one’s environment capability through the provision of ample volunteer positions, teen advisory boards, and patron feedback and suggestion forms. Another way to provide control over one’s environment in libraries is through the use of townhall style meetings. Libraries should also provide outlets for children to develop a sense of autonomy.

Despite many libraries lack of animals, many are doing pretty good at ensuring the other species capability. Libraries are ensuring this capability by creating community gardens, providing free National Parks passes, running programs that have children reading to or making blankets for dogs, and teaming up with parks, zoos, or the like to do educational programs on animals and the environment.

Lastly, libraries have become more and more about play. Libraries frequently encourage recreational activities with their wide range of programming and regular group meetings (i.e. quilting club, writers club, book club, anime club, Dungeons & Dragons club, and so on so on). Libraries have become louder, especially children’s and teen’s sections which often boast imagination stations or gaming computers. Learning and play often go hand in hand in public libraries.

In Conclusion

This topic could go on forever and you don’t have to stop here, you have access to google and your library’s databases. So, go, learn, and have a good time exploring how you can get your library rolling on ensuring that patrons’ capabilities!

Always remember: you are super capable of provoking change!

Works Cited

Cabello, M., & Butler, S. M. (2017). How public libraries help build healthy communities. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2017/03/30/how-public-libraries-help-build-healthy-communities/

Jaeger, P. T., Shilton, K., & Koepfler, J. (2016). The Rise of Social Justice as a Guiding Principle in Library and Information Science Research. The Library Quarterly, 86(1), 1-9.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating Capabilities (Kindle Locations 219-395). Kindle Edition.

Seattle Public Library. (2017). The Seattle Public Library. Retrieved October 15, 2017, from http://www.spl.org/about-the-library/mission-statement

Zettervall, S. S. (2015). Whole Person Librarianship. Public Libraries, 54(2), 12-13.